These legal systems recognize that it is by adopting a common approach to the automatic exchange of information that offshore tax evasion is most effective, while minimizing costs to governments and financial institutions. The exchange of information on request was completed by an automatic procedure on 29 October 2014.  The automatic process must be based on a common reporting standard. In order to implement the standard on a consistent and effective basis, the Bill amending the Tax Administration Act 2015 proposes amendments to ensure that certain financial institutions are required to file reports on all account holders and controlers, whether South Africa has an international tax treaty with its residency authority or if the jurisdiction is currently a jurisdiction of IRS participation (Ref. Page 15). The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information (Standard or CRS) is a standardized automatic exchange model based on the FATCA IGA to maximize efficiency and minimize costs, except that the Astil is now extended to all foreign accounts and not just to the accounts of U.S. citizens. South Africa is also one of the first users of the IRS and is committed to automatically launching the exchange of information from September 2017, along with more than 100 other jurisdictions. The legality of intergovernmental agreements (IGAs) has been called into question on the grounds that any agreement between governments binding each government is a treaty. Since the U.S. Constitution does not allow the executive branch to unilaterally implement treaties without Senate approval, many argue that IGAs have no basis in the U.S. Constitution.  IGAs were not described or provided for in fatca laws, but were designed and implemented on the basis that it became clear that fatca would fail without it. Jurisdictions may also use the text of the articles in the model protocol to include the automatic and spontaneous exchange of information in a new TIEA. A brief guide has been added: the information for account holders refers to the status summary and timetable of the parties to the OECD Multilateral Convention for information on the legal systems in question. Bilateral TIEAs were ordered in alphabetical order by jurisdiction for a simple reference. You will find information about the laws concerned in the statute table. www.oecd.org/tax/automatic-exchange/about-automatic-exchange/CbC-MCAA-Signatories.pdf The advantage of standardization is process simplification, greater efficiency and cost reduction for all stakeholders involved. Many different and inconsistent models would impose considerable costs on both government and industry to gather the necessary information and exploit the different models.